Instrumentation for Medical Imaging

Academic year
Subject Area
Biomedical Engineering
Language of Instruction
Mode of Delivery
ECTS Credits
2nd Cycle Studies - Mestrado

Recommended Prerequisites


Teaching Methods

Theory lessons on physical principles underlying the imaging techniques, technical details on instrumentation, currently in use and that under development. Practical classes including laboratory measurements and computation experience; visits to medical imaging units and scientific laboratories where demonstartions take place, some with participation of the students. Elaboration on a topic related with the subject with emphasis on state-of-the-art techniques and new developments and its public presentation.

Learning Outcomes

Acquisition of theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of medical imaging instrumentation with emphasis on the undelaying physical principles of different types of medical imaging techniques and instrument functioning as well as on image acquisition.
Capability to relate the physical processes leading to the image formation with diagnostic information that can be obtained from different types of images.
Become familiar with the most commont imaging modalities.

Work Placement(s)



I - Imaging with ultrasound. Propagation of acustic waves in matter, attenuation. Ultrasound transducers.
Transmission and reflected pulse techniques. Imaging systems and applications: images in 2D, 3D, 4D and Doppler imaging. High intensity ultrasound: clinical applications and induced biological effects.

II- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Physical foundations; pulse sequences; relaxation processes. Image acquisition techniques and instrumentation.

III –Imaging with X-rays. Radiography: attenuation of X-rays in tissue. X-ray generation. Common X-ray detection systems; digital radiography. Computorized Tomography: physical bases, attenuation data and image reconstruction. Evolution of the CT systems.

IV – Radioisotope imaging. Physical principles, the nature of the detected signal; radioisotopes. Single photon imaging. Anger camera. SPECT. Recent developments; SPECT/CT. Positron Emission tomography: image formation; 2D and 3D PET. Time-of-flight PET. PET/CT. New developments.

Assessment Methods

Exam: 100.0%


S. Webb (ed.), The physics of Medical Imaging, IOP, 1998.

J. J. Carr, J. M. Brown, Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology, Prentice Hall, 1998.

L.A. Geddes and L.E. Baker, Principles of applied biomedical instrumentation, Wiley, New York 1989.

Medical imaging physics, Hendee WR e Ritenou ER , Wiley-Liss, 4th ed., 2002.

Diagnostic ultrasound imaging, Thomas L. Szabo., Elsevier Academic Press, 2004

MRI, basic principles and applications, M. A. Brown and R.C. Semelka , Wiley-Liss,Hoboken, N.J., 2003.

Artigos científicos de revisão seleccionados pelo professor.