Knowledge of Topography and CAD.
The essential theoretical concepts that are approached in the theoretical classes will be presented simultaneously with the resolution of some practical problems, being some of them implemented in practice by means of field work.
Students are expected to strengthen and deepen their knowledge in the field of Topography, focusing the practical component and the applications. The accomplishment of topographic surveys will be approached in a complete way from the elaboration of a topographic map using the CAD programme. Practical issues and the rigorous adjustment will be enhanced, using the method of least squares. The use of Global Positioning Systems will be approached not only for the determination of support points to the survey but also for the implementation of the survey itself. Students should also know how to set up an engineering work on the field on the basis of the project and carry out the control of structures by means of topographic and geodesic methods.
1. Topographical surveys.
1.1. Relationship of the topographical surveys to a datum.
1.2. Criteria for the location of the stations to be used.
1.3. Data coding and processing.
1.4. CAD plots of topographical maps.
1.5. Precision surveys.
1.6. Movable system to measure coordinates.
2. Adjustment of topographic observations.
2.1. The Theory of Errors.
2.2. The Method of least Squares.
2.3. Application of the method of least squares to problems of topography.
3. Support to the building of Engineering works.
3.1. Implantation of projects.
3.2. Follow up of construction works.
3.3. Monitoring of structures.
· Davis, Raymond E. et al. (1981) Surveying-Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill.
· Complementos de Topografia, Instituto Geográfico do Exército, 2001.
· Casaca, J.; Matos, J.; Baio, M. (2005) Topografia Geral. Editora Lidel.