Animal Physiology

Academic year
Subject Area
Área Científica do Menor
Language of Instruction
Mode of Delivery
ECTS Credits
1st Cycle Studies

Recommended Prerequisites

Introductory course that requires only the knowledge acquired during the High-School  level. The course is lectured in Portuguese, so that a good domain of this language is required.

Teaching Methods

The teaching methods of both theoretical and theoretical-practical classes aim the global learning of the discipline.

The lectures are based on presentations with simple texts and diagrams, graphs, etc.., with the support of media. There is opportunity to discuss the most difficult concepts and more complex points.

Learning Outcomes

This course aims the aquisition of knowledge about the mechanisms of functioning of various organ systems involved in maintaining the constancy of the internal environment of complex animal organisms.

The physiology is studied in a integrated manner, focusing on mechanisms of regulation and coordination of the activity of various systems. The physiological mechanisms are studied at cellular and molecular level. Changes of physiological processes in situations of disease are often studied to stimulate learning.

Work Placement(s)



1. Internal environment and homeostasis

2. Nervous control

Electrical activity of the nerve cell. How the cells in the nervous system are organized to form structures capable of information capture, information integration, and control the activity of the organism.

3. Muscles and Animal Movement

Types of muscles and fibers in skeletal muscle tissue. Nervous control of muscle activity.

4. The Cardiovascular System and Internal Transport:

The heart as excitable tissue. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of cardiac output. Regulation of the cardiovascular system in normal, disease and exercise.

5. Exchange of Gases and Acid-base:

Types of respiratory structures; Mechanical pulmonary ventilation. Gas exchange in the lungs. Gas transport in the blood. Regulation of respiration.

6. The Kidneys and the Regulation of Body Fluids:

Anatomy of the excretory system. The body fluid compartments; regulatory mechanisms of water and electrolytes.

Head Lecturer(s)

Paulo Fernando Martins dos Santos

Assessment Methods

Synthesis work: 10.0%
Laboratory work or Field work: 15.0%
Frequency: 37.5%
Exam: 37.5%


•Silverthorn, D.U. (2013) Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach (6ª Ed) Pearson Ed.

•Fox, S.I. (2012) Human Physiology (13ª Ed) McGraw-Hill Ed

•Seeley . Stephens . Tate (2012) Anatomia & Fisiologia (8ª Ed) Lusodidacta Ed

•Moyes , Schulte (2008) Principles of animal physiology (1ª Ed) Pearson Ed