General Hydraulics II

Academic year
Subject Area
Language of Instruction
Mode of Delivery
ECTS Credits
1st Cycle Studies

Recommended Prerequisites

Mathematic Analysis III, General Physics I, General Physics II, Mechanics , Numerical Methods, General Hydraulics I

Teaching Methods

In the theoretical lessons, the concepts are evidenced and the expressions required to solve the practical problems are demonstrated. The concepts acquired and the laws obtained allow to the student by it self, in the practical lessons, followed by the respective professor, solve the exercises relative to the subjects of the discipline, or develop eventual laboratorial works. The student is, in general, stimulated to develop its own notes in the theoretical lessons that later will use in the practical lessons. It is, thus, as much as possible, active element in the learning process.

Beyond the bibliography of the discipline and some elements of study, additional sheets with exercises, useful forms for the resolution of the practical problems, and eventual guides of laboratorial work, are given along the semester.

Learning Outcomes

To confer a consistent basic learning in General Hydraulics (in the continuity of General Hydraulics I) necessary to the current exercise of the profession, in order to allow, particularly, the assimilation of the basic concepts of the scientific area and the identification, understanding and resolution of the more common hydraulic problems. A special development is given of the subjects relative to pipe flow, open channel flow, flow through orifices and weirs and fluid measurements, as well as to the general characteristics and working conditions of hydraulic machinery: pumps and turbines.

To promote the capacity of analyzing and theorizing the real physical phenomena and of applying the theoretical basis and the conceptual models through the resolution of application problems, developing the capacity of conception and analysis and the critical spirit relatively to the involved approaches.

To promote the growing of abilities in interpretation, communication and independent learning.

Work Placement(s)



1. Similitude theory

Concept of similarity. Similarity in hydraulics

2. Steady flow in pressure conduits

Minor and continuous head losses. Calculation of hydraulic installations. Influence of pipe layout. Pipe networks. Air pockets in pipe flow. Cavitation.

3. Unsteady flow in pressure pipes

Water hammer and surge chambers. Qualitative and quantitative analysis. Protection of force mains. Quasi permanent flow. 

4. Open channel flow

Uniform flow. Gradually varied flow in prismatic channels. Qualitative water surface profile and computation. Hydraulic jump. Reference to some more advanced topics.

5. Flow through orifices and weirs. Hydraulic measurements

Orifices in thin wall and thick wall. Nozzles and tubes. Submerged orifices. Openings regulated by gates. Sharp crested and broad-crested weirs. Devices more frequently used in the more common hydraulic measurements.

6. Hydraulic machinery

General characteristics of the main types of turbines and pumps. Working conditions.


Quintela, A. C. (2000), Hidráulica, 7ª Edição, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa.

Lencastre, A. (1996), Hidráulica Geral, Lisboa.

Manzanares, A. A. (1979), Hidráulica Geral  I-Fundamentos teóricos, Técnica, AEIST, Lisboa.

Manzanares, A. A. (1980), Hidráulica Geral  II-Escoamentos líquidos, Técnica, AEIST, Lisboa.

Novais-Barbosa, J. (1985), Mecânica dos Fluidos e Hidráulica Geral, Vol. 1, Porto Editora.

Novais-Barbosa, J. (1986), Mecânica dos Fluidos e Hidráulica Geral, Vol. 2, Porto Editora.

Pimenta, C. F., (1977), Curso de Hidráulica Geral, 3ª Edição, Vol. 1, São Paulo.

Pimenta, C. F., (1978), Curso de Hidráulica Geral, 3ª Edição, Vol. 2, São Paulo.

Franzini, J. B., Finnemore, E. J. (1997), Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications, International Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.