Classical Mechanics II

Academic year
Subject Area
Área Científica do Menor
Language of Instruction
Mode of Delivery
ECTS Credits
1st Cycle Studies

Recommended Prerequisites

Mathematical Analysis  Linear Algebra and Analytical Geometry  General Physics I and II  Classical Mechanics I.

Teaching Methods

Introduction and discussion of the different theoretical topics, accompanied by its practical application. Introduction of mathematical methods and techniques needed to understand the matters and the resolution of physical problems.
Discussion of examples and case studies.

Learning Outcomes

Theoretical understanding of physical phenomena.
Mathematical skills to solve problems.
Deep general education in physics.
Ability to search and use bibliography.
Understand the phenomena of oscillation of systems with several degrees of freedom and their normal modes of oscillation;
Understand the theory of relativity and the dynamics of relativistic processes;
Understand key aspects of tensor calculus and the covariant formulation of physical laws;
Understand the phenomenology of deformable bodies , in particular the formulation of tensor fields of deformations and stress and the equations that govern them;
Know the phenomenology of fluid mechanics and learn how to apply its equations to inviscid and viscid fluids.
Generic skills :
analysis and synthesis;
organization and planning;
oral and written communication;
to solve problems;
critical thinking;
autonomous learning and adaptability to new situations.

Work Placement(s)



1 - Small oscillations of systems with N degrees of freedom. Normal modes of oscillation; the system of principal axes and normal coordinates. Forced and damped oscillations of systems. Resonance.
2 - Covariant formulation of special relativity: the Einstein's postulates, covariant formulation of the theory, invariance and conservation, center of mass system, threshold energy, elastic and inelastic collisions.
3 - Elements of tensor calculus: general transformations, tensors, the fundamental metric tensor.
4 - Deformable bodies/elasticity: tensor fields of deformations and stresses, the Cauchy equation, elastic energy and elastic hysteresis; observables of the theory of elasticity; the Navier equation, propagation of elastic waves , s and p waves.
5 - Deformable bodies/fluid mechanics: ideal fluids, the Euler and Bernoulli equations; real fluids, the Navier-Stokes equation, vorticity, the Reynolds number, boundary layer of Prandt; drag force, lift force, the D' Alembert paradox.

Head Lecturer(s)

Maria Constança Mendes Pinheiro da Providência Santarém e Costa

Assessment Methods

Continuous evaluation
Frequency: 100.0%

Final evaluation
Exam: 100.0%


GOLDSTEIN, H. (1980). Classical Mechanics. 2. ed. Addison-Wesley.


LANDAU & LIFSHITZ. Elasticity.

BHATIA A. B.; & SINGH, R. N. (1986). Mechanics of Deformable Media. Adam Hilger.

FEYNMAN, R. P.; SANDS, R. B. Leightonm M. (1977). The Feynmann Lectures on Physics. Addison-Wesley. vol. II.

JACKSON, J. D.. Classical Electrodynamics.

MATHEWS & WALKER. Mathematical Methods of Physics

MARION, J. B. & THORNTON, S. T. (1995). Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. 4. ed. Academic Press.

FRENCH, A. P. (1968). Special Relativity. W. W. Norton.

Mecânica clássica II, textos letivos (2013), J. Pinto da Cunha.