International Negotiation

Academic year
Subject Area
Área Científica do Menor
Language of Instruction
Mode of Delivery
ECTS Credits
1st Cycle Studies

Recommended Prerequisites

Students should have a basic knowledge of Research Methods.

Teaching Methods

The course combines theory and seminars. Students discuss case studies within the given theoretical framework: each student within the regime of continuous assessment selects and analyses a case study of international negotiation, writing an essay and making an oral presentation.

Learning Outcomes

Overall objectives

In theoretical terms, the student will be familiar with: the concepts international negotiation and diplomatic negotiation; the stages of the negotiation process; different models available for the analysis of case studies of international negotiation; how to surpass deadlocks in different types of negotiation.

Specific objectives

Students should learn how to deal with specific cases of asymmetrical negotiation and negotiation across cultures.

Generic competencies

The discipline aims at assuring that the student acquires theoretical knowledge and analytical skills.

Specific competencies

Competencies for discussing and interpreting the dynamics inherent to international negotiations in theory and practice, through the use of case studies.

Work Placement(s)



I – Concepts
1.    Diplomacy
2.    Negotiation
3.    Diplomatic negotiation
4.    Bilateral and multilateral negotiation

II – The negotiation process
1.    Pre-negotiation
2.    Negotiation
3.    Post-negotiation

III – Negotiation models
1.    Formula/detail
2.    Reducing alternatives
3.    Concession/convergence
4.    Interest/expectation/attitude
5.    The Harvard negotiation style
6.    Combining different models

IV – Asymmetrical negotiations
1.    Definition
2.    Application of the negotiation models
3.    Factors that moderate power imbalance

V – Overcoming deadlocks

VI – Mediation and second track diplomacy

VII – Negotiation behavior
1.    Cognitive aspects
2.    Personality of the negotiator and mediator
3.    Ethic
4.    Culture

VIII – Cross-cultural negotiation
1.    High-context negotiation
2.    Low-context negotiation

B) Case Studies

Head Lecturer(s)

Carmen Isabel de Oliveira Amado Mendes

Assessment Methods

Final Assessment
Exam: 100.0%

Continuous Assessment
Essay/test: 50.0%
Participation during class : 50.0%


CALLIÈRES, François de - On the manner of negotiating with princes : on the uses of diplomacy : the choice of ministers and envoys ; and the personal qualities necessary forsucess in misssions abroad. Memphis : General Books, 2012. [BP 327 CAL]

GETTING to the table : the processes of international prenegotiation. Ed. Janice Gross Stein. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

KARRASS, Chester L. - In business as in life : you don't get what you deserve, you get what you negotiate.             Los Angeles : Stanford Street Press, 1996.

KARRASS, Chester L. - Negotiating effectively within your own organization. [s.l.] : Karrass Limited, 2011.

MENDES, Carmen Amado - Portugal, China and the Macau negotiations, 1986–1999. Hong Kong : Hong Kong University Press, 2013.

PEACEFUL resolution of major international disputes. Ed. Julie Dahlitz. New York : United Nations, 1999.

SATOW, Ernest Mason - Satow's guide to diplomatic practice. 5th ed.. London ; New York : Longman, 1979.